The shape of a centuries-old Buddhist singing bowl has inspired a Canberra scientist to re-think the way that solar cells are designed to maximize their efficiency. [click to continue…]
Pet abuse and domestic violence are closely linked. Animals can’t talk but University of Sydney vet Dr Lydia Tong has shown vets how to tell the difference between bone fractures caused by accidents and those caused by abuse. Her fracture identification methods are giving vets the added confidence to identify cases of violence against pets and could serve as a warning of domestic violence.
Wednesday 9 July 2014
Dr James Makinson evicts bees from their homes for a good reason—to figure out how they collectively decide on the next place to live. His research on bee communication and consensus-building has been published in this month’s issue of Animal Behaviour.
James and his colleagues at the University of Sydney in partnership with two universities in Thailand have found that not all honeybee species think like the common Western hive bee when it comes to deciding on a place to nest.
Two little-known species—the giant Asian honeybee and the tiny red dwarf honeybee—use a more rapid collective decision-making process that enables them to choose a new home quickly. But they aren’t as fussy when it comes to the quality of their new home.
It’s work that could help with understanding and managing honeybees for pollination services, ecological health, and pest control. [click to continue…]
But SAHMRI researchers are making it starve by eating itself to death
Tuesday 1 July 2014
Stubborn cancer cells play a cunning trick when faced with treatments designed to kill them — they eat themselves to survive. But SAHMRI researchers have found a way to starve the cancer cells, making them more susceptible to cancer therapy.
As researchers develop more personalised cancer therapies that target cancer cells, they are also seeing an increase in resistance to treatment, where patients relapse or no longer respond to treatment.
One way that cancer resists treatment is by undergoing a process where the cancer cells eat themselves to maintain energy levels during times of stress — a process that helps them survive cancer treatments that would otherwise starve them.
Lisa Schafranek, a University of Adelaide PhD student working a SAHMRI, and her colleagues have used a clinically available drug to stop leukaemia cells from eating themselves to survive cancer therapy. [click to continue…]
Monday 23 June 2014
Perth researchers have shown that twice-weekly exercise can improve sexual function in prostate cancer patients by 50 per cent.
Now, they’re calling on Perth men to participate in a new study to find out why exercise works, and how effective it can be on a broader range of patients.
One in six Australian men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer, and 90 per cent of them will report some form of sexual dysfunction during or after their treatment.
“Men think about sex a lot – on average, every 45 minutes which is more often than they think about food or sleep,” says Dr Prue Cormie, a senior research fellow at Edith Cowan University. “So it’s not surprising that sexual dysfunction is the most frequently identified issue of importance among prostate cancer survivors.”
Last year, Prue and her colleagues at the Edith Cowan University Health and Wellness Institute put a group of men with prostate cancer through a supervised exercise program involving twice-weekly group-based sessions of resistance exercise such as weight lifting, and aerobic exercises including walking and cycling.
Lighter-weight, fuel-efficient cars may be closer to reality thanks to Geelong researchers who are giving carbon fibre the gripping power it needs to be able to stand up to impacts from motorists.
High-performance vehicles already use carbon fibre – a high-strength lightweight material that can be moulded into complex shapes – to make cars lighter, more fuel-efficient and faster.
But although strong, carbon fibre is prone to damage from sudden impact. And unlike metal, it can’t be repaired – only replaced.
This factor has limited the material’s uptake by the wider automotive industry, as the common bingle would end up costing motorists a lot more to fix.
Ms Linden Servinis, a PhD student at Deakin University, and her colleagues have developed a treatment for carbon fibre that makes it 16% stronger by forming extra chemical ‘arms’ that grip onto its surroundings, allowing the material to withstand greater impacts. [click to continue…]
But researchers have to teach yeast to make it
Thursday 5 June 2014
Queensland researchers are persuading baker’s yeast to produce orange-flavoured renewable jet fuel from sugar.
Mr Timothy Brennan and his colleagues at the University of Queensland’s Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology have helped genetically-engineered yeast to evolve to make an oil called limonene, which is found naturally in lemons and oranges, and also happens to be an efficient jet fuel.
They’ve worked out how to get the yeast to make more oil without killing itself in the process.
It’s an important step in scaling up biofuel production so that it can become a serious alternative to traditional fossil fuels. [click to continue…]
Dr Francis Torres, a physicist at the University of Western Australia, has developed the mirror device at the heart of a new amplifier technology, which uses an interaction between a high-powered laser and mirror motion to magnify subtle metal, temperature and biological vibrations so they are more easily detected.
“Our idea is to connect the sensors in existing space exploration tools to our amplifier so they can look deeper underground and find smaller and hard-to-find targets such as hidden mineral deposits, water or other bacterial life,” says Francis, who developed the resonator mirror as part of his PhD.
According to Francis, the amplifier technology could also enhance the detection sensitivity of Earth exploration tools and medical sensors.
Monash University PhD student James Aridas and his colleagues at MIMR-PHI Institute’s Ritchie Centre have found that melatonin patches, commonly used to treat jetlag in the US, can reduce damaging free radicals and subsequent brain cell death when they are administered in the hours after birth asphyxia has occurred.
The discovery could help change the fate of around 300 Australian babies who develop disabilities and neurodevelopmental disorders after birth asphyxia each year, as well as that of millions of babies in developing countries where treatment is almost non-existent.
Cairns researchers have discovered a wound-healing and cancer-causing hormone in the spit of a liver worm that lives in over nine million people and infects adventurous Australian tourists. The Southeast Asian liver fluke munches through the liver repairing the damage as it goes. But after many years of infection it can cause liver cancer and kills 20,000 people each year in Thailand alone.
Now James Cook University researcher Dr Michael Smout has found that a protein in the spit also sends wound-healing messages.
In 2010 James Cook University researchers discovered that the worm spit was promoting cell growth and wound repair. Then in 2012 Dr Michael Smout discovered a growth hormone in the spit, showed it was responsible both for the repair and in part for the cancer, and that it promotes wound-healing. He hopes that the work will lead both to new wound-healing compounds, and to a vaccine against the worm.
The discovery received no public attention at the time. But now its discoverer, Dr Michael Smout, is presenting the work publically for the first time thanks to FameLab Australia. He won the Australian final two weeks ago in Perth using a teddy bear to assist in his talk. He flies to the International FameLab final in the UK on Friday to represent Australia. [click to continue…]
Congratulations to Dr Michael Smout from James Cook University for taking out Australia’s first FameLab competition on Tuesday night in Fremantle, WA.
Michael and his research story on cancer-causing liver worms will be heading to the UK in June to represent Australia at the International FameLab competition held at the Times Cheltenham Science Festival.
He’ll be needing some extra luggage allowance to take his props with him.
Congratulations to all the finalists, and to the runner-up Tim Brennan from The University of Queensland.
You’ll be hearing more about Michael’s work and other Fresh Science stories in the coming weeks.
Killer bees and cannibalistic cancer, future fuels and drilling on mars: FameLab Australia National Final
Join us to hear Fresh Science stories on stage at the FameLab Australia national final in Perth on 13 May
Across Australia, more than 300 people gathered at pubs, museums and universities to hear our first crop of FameLab Australia state finalists.
Now we’re stepping things up a notch – we’ve chosen a dozen of the most inspiring competitors with engaging stories from across the country to compete at the FameLab National Final in Perth.
If you’re in Perth, join us for the National Final:
When: Tuesday, 13 May, 6-8pm
Where: WA Maritime Museum, Fremantle
RSVP: www.famelabaus14.eventbrite.com This is a free event, and all are welcome.
The overall winner will represent Australia at the FameLab International Grand Final at the Times Cheltenham Science Festival in the UK in June.
This year’s FameLab finalists are:
- James Makinson, The University of Sydney
- Nick Roden, University of Tasmania and CSIRO
- James Aridas, Monash University
- Prue Cormie, Edith Cowan University
- Vince Polito, Macquarie University
- Lydia Tong, University of Sydney
- Francis Torres, University of Western Australia
- Niraj Lal, Australian National University
- Lisa Schafranek, SAHMRI
- Tim Brennan, AIBN, University of Queensland
- Linden Servinis, Deakin University
- Michael Smout, James Cook University
FameLab is aimed at training our early-career scientists to become our future media voices, role models, and educators in Australian science. Read more about FameLab Australia at www.famelab.org.au
Lights! Camera! Science! Passionate Aussie scientists are in the spotlight talking science.
No jargon, no lab coats – props, music and poetry optional.
Join us in Brisbane, Sydney, Melbourne, Perth and Adelaide for the State Heats of FameLab Australia – a competition that gives early-career researchers the chance to talk about their science in plain English.
But they’ve only got 3 minutes.
The State Heat winner will head to Perth to compete in the FameLab national final in May.
All events are free to attend and all are welcome.
Register your attendance in your state via Eventbrite:
- Brisbane – 25 March www.famelabqld.eventbrite.com
- Sydney – 27 March www.famelabnsw.eventbrite.com
- Melbourne – 2 April www.famelabvic.eventbrite.com
- Perth – 8 April www.famelabwa.eventbrite.com
- Adelaide – 10 April www.famelabsa.eventbrite.com
- National Final – 13 May (event opening soon)
Our State Finalists are:
Dr Matt Baker, Victor Chang Cardiac Research Institute
Mr Jordan Collier, University of Western Sydney
Mr Matthew Collins, CUDOS/University of Sydney
Dr. Graham Doig, University of New South Wales
Mr. Ali Fathi, University of Sydney
Mr Nathanial Harris, University of Wollongong
Mr Steve Krezo, University of Western Sydney
Dr James Makinson, University of Sydney
Mr Andrew Merdith, University of Sydney
Dr Vince Polito, Macquarie University
Dr Lydia Tong, University of Sydney
Mr Peter Gous, Centre of Nutrition and Food Science – QAAFI/University of Queensland
Dr Katharine Greenaway, University of Queensland / Canadian Institute for Advanced Research
Ms Anthea King, University of Queensland/University of Copenhagen
Mrs Karishma Mody, The University of Queensland
Ms Saira Mumtaz, James Cook University
Dr Linda Pfeiffer, Central Queensland University
Mr Anton Pluschke, The University of Queensland
Dr Michael Smout, James Cook University
Ms Kelly Hitchens, The University of Queensland
Mr Tim Brennan, The University of Queensland
SA Finalists (Including ACT and Tas)
Mr Michael Douglass, University of Adelaide
Dr Niraj Lal, Australian National University
Ms Mika Peace, University of Adelaide / Bureau of Meteorology
Dr Sally Potter, Australian National University
Ms Daisy Veitch, TU Delft
Dr Benny Samuel Eathakkattu Antony, Menzies Research Institute Tasmania, University of Tasmania
Mr Nick Roden, University of Tasmania and CSIRO
Ms Lisa Schafranek
Mr James Aridas, Monash University
Dr Ebrahim Bani Hassan, The University of Melbourne
Mr Matthew Bird, The University of Melbourne
Mr Justin Chen, MIMR-PHI Institute of Medical Research, Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute, Monash University
Mr David Collins, Monash University
Ms Lori Ferrins, Monash University
Ms Melanie Finch, Monash University
Dr Nishar Hameed, Deakin University
Mr. Jared Horvath, University of Melbourne
Dr Katherine Locock, CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering Division
Miss Linden Servinis, Deakin University
Dr Kartik Venkatraman, East Gippsland Shire Council
Ms Jenny Fairthorne, Telethon Institute for Child Health Research and the University of Western Australia
Dr Luke Hopper, University of Notre Dame Australia/Edith Cowan University
Dr Therese O’Sullivan, Edith Cowan University
Mr Francis Torres, University of Western Australia
Mr Mark Zammit, Curtin University
Dr Prue Cormie, Edith Cowan University
Dr James Tweedley, Murdoch University
Ms Aja Ellis, Curtin University
Australia wastes 7.3 million tonnes of food a year, with Australian households responsible for dumping more than half of that: about 4.1 million tonnes or around 9kg of food from every home, every week.
But for the first time, we know exactly what we waste, how it is wasted, and where it goes.
Researchers from the University of South Australia have traced the cycle of food waste in a three-year study looking at the economic, environmental and psychological modelling of food waste.
A Pacific Ocean coral island, populated around 40 years ago, reveals how human settlement can quickly degrade water quality and affect the health of coral reefs, Sydney scientists say.
Jessica Carilli, of the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, and Sheila Walsh, of the Nature Conservancy, used Kirimati Island to examine the shells made by an organism that thrives in high-nutrient conditions, which is considered detrimental to coral.
Siobhan Wilson, of Monash University, has collaborated with America’s Indiana University to find that water-bearing crystals on the planet’s surface can produce water and help release nutrients, supporting the possibility that minerals could sustain life beyond Earth.